Smith Mountain Lake Resource Page

Information gathered from Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries

Smith Mountain Lake is a 20,600-acre impoundment located near Roanoke in Bedford and Franklin counties. This reservoir is one of Virginia’s premier fisheries, offering outstanding fishing and other recreational opportunities. The reservoir was constructed in the early 1960’s and is owned by American Electric Power Company and is managed primarily for hydroelectric power generation. Most of the shoreline is developed with residential homes but other facilities catering to outdoor enthusiasts are found at various locations.

According to a creel survey conducted in 2003, the most sought after speices are Black bass, crappie, catfish, and sunfish. Annual stockings of striped bass are required to maintain the fishery since they do not reproduce successfullat at this reservoir. The other sportfish such as largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, crappie, white perch, yellow perch, channel catfish white catfish, and flathead catfish are all maintained through natural reproduction. The only species that are not managed with statewide regulations are black bass and striped bass.

Smith Mountain Lake has a numerous boat ramps (public and private) and marinas scattered throughout the reservoir. Smith Mountain Lake State Park is a major attraction with all it has to offer. Some of the parks options are picnic areas, a beach, campground, cabins, handicapped fishing pier, boat ramp, hiking trails and scenic views. Combining the lakes proximity to Roanoke and Lynchburg with residential development, visitors should expect heavy boat traffic during the summer months. However, anglers will find little competition during the cooler months.

Largemouth bass are the most sought after species by anglers at Smith Mountain Lake. Largemouth bass comprise the bulk of this fishery and outnumber smallmouth ten to one. Smith Mountain Lake is consistently one of the top producers of bass citations in Virginia. Testing for the largemouth bass virus was conducted in 2001 and all fish collected tested negative for the virus.

Largemouth bass fishing on this 20,600-acre lake is very good but this fishery receives a lot of pressure. Extensive electrofishing surveys (conducted by VDGIF fisheries biologists) each spring typically produce many largemouth bass in the 2-4 pound range. Surveys indicate the largemouth bass and smallmouth bass fishery has remained stable for several years, which is an improvement over the early 90s and 80s. The highest densities of largemouth bass in this reservoir is found upstream (heading away from the dam) of Hales Ford Bridge area in the Roanoke River arm and buoy B26 in the Blackwater River arm. Smallmouth bass are more evenly distributed throughout the reservoir. Piers and boathouses provide extensive shoreline cover that anglers should take advantage of. Additionally, natural structure such as fallen trees, rock shoals, and points, are seasonally productive. Coves typically produce the best largemouth bass angling opportunities due to shallower water and less boating traffic. Most anglers, fishing during the summer, fish at night or very early in the morning to avoid heavy boat traffic.

The striper fishery has to be the most notable fishery on Smith Mountain Lake. Striped bass are the second most popular sport fish at Smith Mountain Lake. Striped bass have been stocked into this reservoir since impoundment in 1963. Limited spawning habitat for striped bass prevents natural reproduction. Stocking is required to maintain the fishery unlike other species such as bass, crappie, catfish, and shad. Stocking rates for striped bass were increased from 300,000 to 450,000 fingerlings annually in 1998. Different stocking methods in conjunction with increased stocking rates recently increased the striped bass population.

Recent good year-classes of stripers (from 1998 and 2001) are producing many fish up to 28 inches. Stripers are distributed throughout the lake during most of the year but are concentrated in lower lake areas during the summer and early fall months. Coves are typically not very productive for striped bass during the summer months so anglers should concentrate their efforts on the main lake when water temperatures begin to rise. However, the backs of coves, which contain flowing streams, can be productive during the winter and early spring months. Look for schools of shad in these areas especially during warming trends when the streams are warmer than the reservoir. Striped bass anglers utilize a variety of fishing methods such as drifting live bait, trolling plugs and bucktail jigs, or casting top water lures. Anglers use live bait throughout the year, trolling is most popular during the warmer months, and casting top water or shallow running plugs is most productive during the spring at night. Most striped bass are caught between the dams and buoy 64 of the Roanoke Arm and up to buoy 40 of the Blackwater Arm. Although these are the general areas most striped bass are caught, these fish are very mobile and may change locations continuously depending on forage availability, water temperatures, and spawning.

Anglers should not release legal size striped bass during the summer months. The Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries encourages striped bass anglers to quit fishing after catching their limit in the months of June-September. Most of these fish released during the summer months will not survive! A voluntary catch-and-release (no harvest) season is recommended for striped bass from October through May to help build population abundance and fish size. Look for information brochures around the lake community or contact the VDGIF regional office in Forest, Virginia, for more details on how to practice effective catch-and-release for striped bass.

A striped bass tagging study was initiated in the fall of 2001 to provide biologists with information on striped bass catch rates, harvest rates, movement, survival, and population dynamics. The fish tags are yellow and approximately three inches in length. The tags are attached to the abdominal area of the fish and should be easily recognized without dissection. Tagged fish do not have to be harvested to collect the reward. Cut or clip tags (do not pull tags loose) from fish you wish to release. Anglers are encouraged to submit all tags collected from striped bass to the address printed on the tag. There is a reward of $5-$50 for all returned tags.
This reservoir has limited crappie habitat. An average of 33 citations (trophy certificates) have been issued for crappie at Smith Mountain over the past six years. Although the lake produces many quality size crappies, anglers should not expect to consistently catch large numbers of crappie. The crappie population is smaller than some other Virginia reservoirs but the quality of these fish is very good. Coves in the upper ends of the reservoir should be the most productive especially near fallen trees or brush piles.

Sunfish and catfish are also popular sport species at Smith Mountain Lake. Sunfish are abundant but competition with shad prevents good growth so most of these fish are small. Channel catfish are the most popular catfish species but flathead catfish have recently been introduced and are gaining in popularity because their large size. Flathead catfish are doing very well in size and abundance. Anglers seeking flathead catfish should concentrate their efforts in the upper reaches of the Roanoke Arm, especially in coves. Smith Mountain Lake is also stocked annually with musky fingerlings. This lake does not produce large numbers of muskies; however, a few fish are caught each year, primarily by bass and striper anglers. Although walleye stocking has been discontinued, adult walleye can be caught along the shoreline of the lower lake (below R-8) during night hours of spring and fall. There is a small amount of natural reproduction of walleye occurring in the reservoir.

Numerous public and private boat ramps and marinas are found around the lake. In addition, there is a very nice handicapped-accessible fishing pier at the Smith Mountain Lake State Park boat launching area. Additional information on lodging, marinas, and other attractions can be obtained by calling the Smith Mountain Lake Visitors Center at 1-800-676-8203.

Fishing

>Regulations

Black Bass

Only two bass less than 14 inches may be creeled. The creel limit is five total, including any bass less than 14 inches.

Striped Bass

The minimum size limit is 20 inches with a two per day creel limit.

All other species are under statewide regulations.

Info>

Largemouth and Smallmouth Bass

Black bass (largemouth and smallmouth bass) are the most sought after species by anglers at Smith Mountain Lake. Largemouth bass comprise the bulk of this fishery and outnumber smallmouth ten to one. Largemouth bass fishing on this 20,600-acre lake is good but this fishery receives a lot of pressure. Extensive electrofishing surveys (conducted by VDGIF fisheries biologists) each spring typically produce many largemouth bass in the 2-4 pound range. Surveys indicate the largemouth bass and smallmouth bass fishery has declined the last few years. The highest densities of largemouth bass in this reservoir are found upstream (heading away from the dam) of Hales Ford Bridge area in the Roanoke River arm and buoy B26 in the Blackwater River arm. Smallmouth bass are more evenly distributed throughout the reservoir. Piers and boathouses provide extensive shoreline cover that anglers should take advantage of. Fishing around and under boat docks/piers from the water is legal but remember to be courteous to dock owners. Additionally, natural structure such as fallen trees, rock shoals, and points, are seasonally productive. Coves typically produce the best largemouth bass angling opportunities due to shallower water and less boating traffic. To avoid the heavy boat traffic in the summer, anglers should concentrate their efforts at night or very early in the morning.

Striped Bass

Smith Mountain Lake has gained national attention for its striped bass fishery. The chance to catch fish in the 40-pound class and routine catches of striped bass in the 10 ? 15 pound class has made this fishery very unique. Consequently, striped bass are nearly as popular at Smith Mountain Lake as black bass. Striped bass have been stocked into this reservoir since impoundment in 1963. Limited spawning habitat for striped bass prevents natural reproduction. Stocking is required to maintain the fishery unlike other species such as bass, crappie, catfish, and shad.

The striped bass population had been improving since 1999 as a result of increased stockings and better survival of young fish. However, the Smith Mountain Lake striped bass fishery experienced a major setback in 2003. A parasitic copepod (Achtheres) infestation of striped bass began in the fall of 2002 and the shad population was reduced by more than 60% for several months due to a winterkill in 2003. As a result, a major striped bass kill occurred in the spring of 2003 for a minimum of two months. Based on observations during the fish kill, gill net data, VDGIF citation program data, and angler diary data; the fish kill affected primarily older and larger (>10 lbs.) striped bass. Gill net data has indicated that the number of young (up to 3 years of age) striped bass has remained good despite the fish kills. VDGIF is continuing to monitor and research the parasite infestation. It is unknown at this time what the long-term impacts of this parasite will have on the striped bass population at Smith Mountain Lake. Currently, most striped bass caught are between 4 and 8 pounds.

Striped bass are distributed throughout the lake during most of the year but are concentrated in lower lake areas during the summer and early fall months. Coves are typically not very productive for striped bass during the summer months so anglers should concentrate their efforts on the main lake when water temperatures begin to rise. Striped bass anglers utilize a variety of fishing methods such as drifting live shad, trolling plugs, spoons, plastic shad bodies, and bucktail jigs, or casting top water lures and bucktail jigs. Anglers use live shad throughout the year, trolling is most popular during the warmer months, and casting top water or shallow running plugs is most productive during the spring at night. Most striped bass are caught between the dam and buoy 64 of the Roanoke Arm and up to buoy 40 of the Blackwater Arm. Although these are the general areas most striped bass are caught, these fish are very mobile and may change locations continuously depending on forage availability, water temperatures, and spawning.

Anglers should not release legal size striped bass during the summer months. The Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries encourages striped bass anglers to quit fishing after catching their 2-fish limit in the months of June-September. Most of the striped bass released during the summer months will not survive! Catch-and-release is recommended for striped bass from October through May.

A striped bass tagging study was initiated in the fall of 2001 to provide biologists with information on striped bass catch rates, harvest rates, movement, survival, and population dynamics. The fish tags are yellow and approximately three inches in length. The tags are attached to the abdominal area of the fish and should be easily recognized without dissection. Tagged fish do not have to be harvested to collect the reward. Cut or clip tags (do not pull tags loose) from fish you wish to release. Anglers are encouraged to submit all tags collected from striped bass to the address printed on the tag with the following information: date fish was caught, marker number nearest to location of capture, length of fish, and was harvested or released. There is a reward of $5-$50 for all returned tags. Special postage paid tag return envelopes are available at some marinas and bait and tackle stores in the Smith Mountain Lake area to assist in the return of tags.

Crappie

Although the lake produces many quality size crappie, anglers should not expect to consistently catch large numbers of crappie. The crappie population is smaller than some other Virginia reservoirs but the quality of these fish is very good. Coves in the upper ends of the reservoir should be the most productive especially near fallen trees or brush piles. Crappie anglers are the most productive in October and November.

Catfish

The catfish fishery is comprised primarily of channel catfish, flathead catfish, and white catfish. Flathead and channel catfish are most abundant in the upper reaches of the Roanoke Arm and white catfish are found primarily in the lower end of the reservoir.

Additional Species

Sunfish are also popular sport species at Smith Mountain Lake. Sunfish are abundant but competition with shad prevents good growth so most of these fish are small. Smith Mountain Lake is also stocked annually with musky fingerlings but anglers fishing for other species catch most muskies incidentally. Although walleye stocking was been discontinued in the 1996, there is still a small population due to limited reproduction. A few walleye can be caught along the shoreline of the lower lake (below R-8) during night hours of spring and fall. Channel catfish, flathead catfish, and white catfish make up the catfish fishery. Flathead and channel catfish are most abundant in the upper reaches of the Roanoke Arm and white catfish are found primarily in the lower end of the reservoir.